Geographic distribution of a rare Eurasian boreal species, Cypripedium calceolus, in Ukraine is considered. Based on numerous literature sources, herbarium collections of 12 botanical institutions and materials of our field research, C. calceolus was reported from 225 localities in Ukraine, including 169 – from the plain part of Ukraine, 43 – from the Carpathian Mountains, and 14 – from the Crimean Mountains. In Ukraine this species occurs in the northern and western regions, mainly in the Polissya Lowland, western part of Volhynian-Podolian Upland, Roztochchia, the Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains. On the basis of generalized chorological information, a detailed schematic map of distribution of C. calceolus in Ukraine is presented. The southern border of the main range of C. calceolus in our country is outlined by the following towns: Gertsa–Hotyn–Kitayhorod –Letychiv–Berdychiv–Kozyatyn–Rzhyshchiv–Nizhyn–Poltava–Zmiiv. This species is very rare in the Dnipro Upland and Dnipro Lowland. The only report of the species occurrence on the Donets Ridge belongs to V. Taliev (1896), who found the plant in a nonflowering state and named as "Cypripedium sp." However, this location has never been confirmed later. The dynamics of the accumulation of chorological data on C. calceolus in Ukraine is presented. By the end of the 19th century, a total of 47 localities of this species were reported, in the 20th century 133 new localities were added, and in the current century – another 45. By now, the species disappeared from at least 29 localities. The largest number of vanished localities are known from Zhytomyr and Kyiv Polissya and the Dnipro Lowland. Due to present geographical distribution of this, albeit rare, but a wide-range species, consideration of C. calceolus as a Tertiary relict plant in Ukraine (Litvinov, 1891) is apparently erroneous.
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