ISSN 2415-8860 (online), ISSN 0372-4123 (print)
logoUkrainian Botanical Journal
  • 1 of 9
Ukr. Bot. J. 2018, 75(1): 3–19
Plant Taxonomy, Geography and Floristics

Notes on Australian species of Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) and validation of Salsola sabrinae, nom. et stat. nov.

Mosyakin S.L.

Taxonomic opinions on Australian taxa of Salsola sensu stricto (Chenopodiaceae) are analyzed in a historical context. It is concluded, based on available evidence, that the genus is represented in Australia and adjacent regions of southeasternmost Asia by several (4–5 or more?) native species, including the currently recognized S. australis R. Br. (also naturalized in southwestern North America and southern Africa) and supposedly related taxa (S. macrophylla R. Br., S. brachypteris Moq., S. australis var. strobilifera (Benth.) Domin, etc.); the presence of introduced Eurasian species cannot be excluded as well. The new name Salsola sabrinae Mosyakin is proposed for the native Australian taxon originally described as S. tragus L. subsp. grandiflora S. Rilke (non S. grandiflora Link ex Steud.) and reported mainly from northern tropical and subtropical regions of Australia (northern Western Australia, Northern Territory, and Queensland). It is emphasized that further dedicated morphological, molecular phylogenetic, and phylogeographic studies are needed, in comparison with Eurasian species, for achieving a reliable taxonomic scheme for Australian/Australasian species of Salsola and for clarifying issues of their immigration to and diversification in Australia.

Keywords: Australia, biogeography, Chenopodiaceae, nomenclature, Salsola, Salsoloideae, taxonomy

Full text: PDF (Eng) 1.29M

  1. Adams J. On the Botany of the Thames Goldfields. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1883 [published 1884], 16: 385–393.
  2. Adams J. On the Botany of Hikurangi Mountain. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1897 [published 1898], 30 (13 in New Ser.): 414–433.
  3. Aellen P. Chenopodiaceae. In: G. Hegi. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Aufl. 2. München: Lehmann Verlag, 1960–1961 (Reprinted in 1979: Berlin; Hamburg: Paul Parey Verlag), Bd. 3, T. 2, pp. 533–747.
  4. Aellen P. Neue Chenopodiaceen aus Südwestafrika. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München, 1961, 4: 21–31.
  5. Aellen P. Salsola. In: Flora Europaea. Eds. T.G. Tutin, V.H. Heywood, N.A. Burges, D.H. Valentine, S.M. Walters, D.A. Webb. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1964, vol. 1, pp. 104–107.
  6. Aellen P., Akeroyd J.R. Salsola. In: Flora Europaea. Ed. 2. Eds. T.G. Tutin, N.A. Burges, A.O. Chater, J.R. Edmondson, V.H. Heywood, D.M. Moore, D.H. Valentine, S.M. Walters, D.A. Webb. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993, vol. 1, pp. 125–128.
  7. Akhani H., Edwards G., Roalson E.H. Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast data sets and a revised classification. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 2007, 168(6): 931–956.
  8. Akopian J., Gabrielyan I., Freitag H. Fossil fruits of Salsola L. s.l. and Halanthium K. Koch (Chenopodiaceae) from Lower Pleistocene lacustrine sediments in Armenia. Feddes Repertorium, 2008, 119(3–4), 225–236.
  9. Armstrong J.B. A short sketch of the flora of the Province of Canterbury, with catalogue of species. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1879 [published 1880], 12: 325–353.
  10. Ayres D., Ryan F.J., Grotkoo E., Bailey J., Gaskin J. Tumbleweed (Salsola section Kali) species and speciation in California. Biological Invasions, 2009, 11: 1175–1187.
  11. Backer C.A. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora Malesiana, series 1: Spermatophyta. Ed. C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Batavia: Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., 1949, vol. 4(2), pp. 99–106.
  12. Baker D.V., Beck K.G., Bienkiewicz B.J., Bjostad L.B. Forces necessary to initiate dispersal for three tumbleweeds. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 2008, 1(1): 59–65.
  13. Baker D.V., Withrow J.R., Brown C.S., Beck K.G. Tumbling: use of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) to examine an understudied dispersal mechanism. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 2010, 3: 301–309.
  14. Banks J., Solander D. (with determinations by J. Britten). Illustrations of Australian plants collected in 1770 during Captain Cook's voyage round the World in H.M.S. Endeavour. London: Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, sold by Longmans, 1905, vol. 3, pp. 77–102 + Pl. 244–318.
  15. Bean A.R. A new system for determining which plant species are indigenous in Australia. Australian Systematic Botany, 2007, 20: 1–43.
  16. Becker D.A. Stem abscission in tumbleweeds of the Chenopodiaceae: Kochia. American Journal of Botany, 1978, 65: 375–383.
  17. Bentham G. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora Australiensis: a description of the plants of the Australian territory. London: Reeve and Co., 1870, vol. 5, pp. 150–208.
  18. Betancourt J.L., Long A., Donahue D.J., Jull A.J.T., Zabel T.H. Pre-Columbian age for North American Corispermum L. (Chenopodiaceae) confirmed by accelerator radiocarbon dating. Nature, 1984, 311: 653–655.
  19. Biggs L.J., Parker C.M. Updates to Western Australia's vascular plant census for 2012. Nuytsia, 2013, 23: 503–526.
  20. Boerlage J.G. Handleiding tot de kennis der flora van Nederlandsch Indië. Beschrijving van de families en geslachten der Nederl. Indische phanerogamen. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1900, vol. 3(1), xxxi + 418 pp.
  21. Borger C.P.D., Scott J.K. The biology of Australian weeds. 55. Salsola australis R.Br. Plant Protection Quarterly, 2009, 24(4): 126–137.
  22. Borger C.P.D., Scott J.K., Walsh M., Powles S.B. Demography of Salsola australis populations in the agricultural region of south-west Australia. Weed Research, 2009, 49(4): 391–399.
  23. Borger C.P.D., Walsh M., Scott J.K., Powles S.B. Tumbleweeds in the Western Australian cropping system: seed dispersal characteristics of Salsola australis. Weed Research, 2007, 47: 406–414.
  24. Borger C.P.D., Yan G., Scott J.K., Walsh M., Powles S.B. Salsola tragus or S. australis (Chenopodiaceae) in Australia – Untangling the taxonomic confusion through random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP) and cytological analysis. Australian Journal of Botany, 2008, 56: 600–608.
  25. Botschantzev V.P. The genus Salsola L., a short history of its development and dispersal. Botanicheskiy Zhurnal, 1969, 54(7): 989–1001.
  26. Botschantzev V.P. A synopsis of Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) from South and South-West Africa. Kew Bulletin, 1974, 29: 597–614.
  27. Brotero de Avellar F. Flora lusitanica, seu Plantarum, quae in Lusitania vel sponte crescunt, vel frequentius coluntur, ex florum praesertim sexubus systematice distributarum, synopsis. Olissipone [Lisbon]: Typographia regia, 1804, vol. 1, xviii + 607 pp.
  28. Brown R. Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van-Diemen. Londini [London]: Typis Richardi Taylor et socii, 1810, viii + pp. 145–590.
  29. Brullo C., Brullo S., Gaskin J.F., Giusso del Galdo G., Hrusa G.F., Salmeri C. A new species of Kali (Salsoloideae, Chenopodiaceae) from Sicily, supported by molecular analysis. Phytotaxa, 2015a, 201(4): 256–277.
  30. Brullo C., Brullo S., Ilardi V., Giusso del Galdo G. Kali dodecanesicum (Chenopodiaceae, Salsoloideae) a new species from Greece. Phytotaxa, 2015b, 218(1): 61–68.
  31. Bullock J.M., Shea K., Skarpaas O. Measuring plant dispersal: an introduction to field methods and experimental design. Plant Ecology, 2006, 186: 217–234.
  32. Bunge A. Pflanzen-geographische Betrachtungen über die Familie der Chenopodiaceen. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg. 7e série, 1880, 27(8): 1–36.
  33. Burrows F.M. Wind-borne seed and fruit movement. New Phytologist, 1975, 75: 405–418.
  34. Cabrera J.F., Jacobs S.W.L., Kadereit G. Phylogeny of the Australian Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae) and the taxonomic significance of the fruiting perianth. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 2009, 170: 505–521.
  35. Cabrera J., Jacobs S.W.L., Kadereit G. Biogeography of Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae): tracking the Tertiary history of Australian aridification. Telopea, 2011, 13(1–2): 313–326.
  36. Cain M.L., Milligan B.G., Strand A.E. Long-distance dispersal in plant populations. American Journal of Botany, 2000, 87(9): 1217–1227.
  37. Chapman A.R., Moore D.T., Rees R.G., Groves E.W. Robert Brown's Australian botanical specimens, 1801–1805, at the BM. Introductory notes to the botanical collection made by Robert Brown (1773–1858) in Australia, 1801–1805. 2001–onward. Available from, accessed 26 January 2018.
  38. Cheeseman T.F. The naturalized plants of the Auckland Provincial District. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1982 [published 1883], 15: 268–298.
  39. Cheeseman T.F. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. Wellington: John Mackay, Government Printer, 1906, xxxvi + 1199 pp.
  40. Chinnock R.J. Some observations on Salsola L. (Chenopodiaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Garden, 2010, 24: 75–79.
  41. Cipra J., Fuhrmann K. Understanding endangered plant species population changes at Eureka Dunes, Death Valley National Park. Park Science, 2012, 29(1): 62–68.
  42. Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. National Species List (Australian Plant Name Index and Australian Plant Census), 2006–onward. Salsola australis R. Br. Available from and, accessed 28 January 2018.
  43. Damschen E.I., Baker D.V., Bohrer G., Nathan R., Orrock J.L., Turner J.R., Brudvig L.A., Haddad N.M., Levey D.J., Tewksbury J.J. How fragmentation and corridors affect wind dynamics and seed dispersal in open habitats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 2014, 111(9) 3484–3489.
  44. Diels L. Vegetations-Biologie von Neu-Seeland. Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 1897, 22: 202–300.
  45. Diels L., Pritzel E. Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae occidentalis. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Pflanzen Westaustraliens, ihrer Verbreitung und ihrer LebensVerhältnisse. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 1905, 35: 55–662.
  46. Domin K. Beiträge zur Flora und Pflanzengeographie Australiens: 3. Abt.: Embryophyta siphonogama, pars II: Dicotyledoneae [1 Teil, 3 Abteilung, Lieferung 1]. Bibliotheca Botanica, 1921, Band 22, Heft 891: 555–643 [parallel pagination: 1–89].
  47. Duretto M.F., Morris D.I. Amaranthaceae, version 2011:1. In: Flora of Tasmania Online. Ed. M.F. Duretto. Hobart: Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery, 2011, 29 pp. Available from: and, accessed 26 January 2018.
  48. Ebach M.C. Reinvention of Australasian Biogeography: Reform, Revolt and Rebellion. Clayton South VIC, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2017, xii + 179 pp.
  49. Eriksson O., Kiviniemi K. Evolution of plant dispersal. In: Life history evolution in plants. Eds. T.O. Vuorisalo, P.K. Mutikainen. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, pp. 215–238.
  50. Esler A.E., Astridge S.J. The naturalisation of plants in urban Auckland, New Zealand. 2. Records of introduction and naturalisation. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1987, 25: 523–537.
  51. Fawcett W. Apetalae (pp. 515–518 in: Prodromus Florae Timorensis: compiled in the Botanical Department of the British Museum). In: H.O. Forbes. A naturalist's wanderings in the Eastern archipelago. A narrative of travel and exploration from 1878 to 1883. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1885, pp. 497–523.
  52. Flinders M. A Voyage to Terra Australis: undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country, and prosecuted in the years 1801, 1802, and 1803 in His Majesty's ship the Investigator, and subsequently in the armed vessel Porpoise and Cumberland Schooner; with an account of the shipwreck of the Porpoise, arrival of the Cumberland at Mauritius, and imprisonment of the commander during six years and a half in that island. London: G. and W. Nicol, 1814, vols. 1–2, with an Atlas (3 vols.).
  53. Freitag H. Salsola. In: Flora of Pakistan. Eds. S.L. Ali, M. Qaiser. Karachi: University of Karachi & St. Louis: Missouri Botanical [Garden] Press, 2001, No. 204, pp. 127–178.
  54. Gaskin J.F., Ryan F.J., Hrusa G.F., Londo J.P. Genotype diversity of Salsola tragus and potential origins of a previously unidentified invasive Salsola from California and Arizona. Madroño, 2006, 53(3): 244–251.[244:GDOSTA]2.0.CO;2
  55. Grime J.P. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. The American Naturalist, 1977, 111(No. 982): 1169–1194.
  56. Grime J.P., Pierce S. The evolutionary strategies that shape ecosystems. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012, xx + 240 pp.
  57. Groves R.H., Hosking J.R., Batianoff G.N., Cooke D.A., Cowie I.D., Johnson R.W., Keighery G.J., Lepschi B.J., Mitchell A.A., Moerkerk M., Randall R.P., Rozefelds A.C., Walsh N.G., Waterhouse B.M. Weed categories for natural and agricultural ecosystem management. Canberra: Bureau of Rural Sciences, 2003, iv + 194 pp.
  58. Grubov V.I. Chenopodiaceae. In: Plantae Asiae Centralis. Leningrad: Nauka, 1966, vol. 2, 134 pp.
  59. Hernández-Ledesma P., Berendsohn W.G., Borsch T., von Mering S., Akhani H., Arias S., Castañeda-Noa I., Eggli U., Eriksson R., Flores-Olvera H., Fuentes-Bazán S., Kadereit G., Klak C., Korotkova N., Nyffeler R., Ocampo G., Ochoterena H., Oxelman B., Rabeler R.K., Sanchez A., Schlumpberger B.O., Uotila P. A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. Willdenowia, 2015, 45: 281–383.
  60. Hill R.S. (ed.). History of the Australian vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent. Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press, 2017, ix + 433 pp. (digital edition, available from [Original edition: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994].
  61. Hooker J.D. Flora Novæ-Zelandiæ [Alternative title: Flora of New Zealand]. Part 1. Flowering plants. In: The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839–1843: under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, vol. 2, part 1. London: Lowell Reeve, 1853, xxxix + 312 pp. + LXX tab.
  62. Hooker J.D. On the flora of Australia: its origin, affinities, and distribution: being an introductory essay to the Flora of Tasmania. London: Lovell Reeve, 1859, vii + cxxviiii pp.
  63. Howe H.F., Smallwood J. Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1982, 13: 201–228.
  64. Hrusa G.F. Salsola [Jepson Manual Taxonomic Treatments: draft]. In: Plant Pest Diagnostics Center Annual Report 2009. Sacramento, California: California Department of Food & Agriculture, 2009, pp. 19–22. Available from, accessed 28 January 2018.
  65. Hrusa G.F. Salsola. In: Jepson Flora Project (eds.). Jepson eFlora, 2012–onward. Available from, accessed 27 January 2018.
  66. Hrusa G.F., Gaskin J.F. The Salsola tragus complex in alifornia (Chenopodiaceae): characterization and status of Salsola australis and the autochthonous allopolyploid Salsola ryanii sp. nov. Madroño, 2008, 55(2): 113–131.[113:TSTCIC]2.0.CO;2
  67. Iljin M.M. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora URSS, Ed. V.L. Komarov. Moscow & Leningrad: Editio Academiae Scientiarum URSS, 1936, vol. 6, pp. 2–354.
  68. Jacobs S.W.L. (updated by L. Murray, 2013). Salsola australis. In: New South Wales Flora Online. 2013–onward. Available from, accessed 26 January 2018.
  69. Kadereit G., Borsch T., Weising K. Freitag H. Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. International Journal of Plant Science, 2003, 164: 959–986.
  70. Kadereit G., Freitag H. Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): Implications for biogeography, evolution of C4-photosynthesis and taxonomy. Taxon, 2011, 60: 51–78.
  71. Kadereit G., Gotzek D., Jakobs S., Freitag H. Origin and age of Australian Chenopodiaceae. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 2005, 5: 59–80.
  72. Kadereit G., Lauterbach M., Pirie M.D., Arafeh R., Freitag H. When do different C4 leaf anatomies indicate independent C4 origins? Parallel evolution of C4 leaf types in Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae). Journal of Experimental Botany, 2014, 65(13): 3499–3511.
  73. Keighery G. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement, 2010, 78: 299–311.
  74. Kirk T. On the naturalized plants of New Zealand, especially with regard to those occurring in the Province of Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1869 [published 1870], 2: 131–146.
  75. Laing R.M., Blackwell E.W. Plants of New Zealand. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs Ltd., 1906, xii + 456 pp.
  76. Lehmann Ch. [J.G.C.]. Plantae Preissianae sive Enumeratio plantarum quas in Australasia occidentali et meridionalioccidentali annis 1838–1841 collegit Ludovicus Preiss. Hamburgi [Hamburg]: Sumptibus Meissneri, 1844, vol. 1, vii + 647 pp.
  77. Macphail M. Australian Palaeoclimates: Cretaceous to Tertiary – A review of palaeobotanical and related evidence to the year 2000. CRC LEME Special Volume Open File Report 151. Bentley, Western Australia: CRC LEME, 2007, 266 pp.
  78. Magidovich V.I., Magidovich I.P. The Age of Great Discoveries: Period I, until the mid-16th century (Essays on the history of geographic discoveries). Moscow: Astrel', 2009, 462 pp.
  79. Maiden J.H. The useful native plants of Australia (including Tasmania). London: Trubner and Co. & Sydney: Turner and Henderson, 1889, viii + 696 pp.
  80. Martin H.A. Cenozoic climatic change and the development of the arid vegetation in Australia. Journal of Arid Environments, 2006, 66: 533–563.
  81. McConnell K. The prehistoric use of Chenopodiaceae in Australia: evidence from Carpenter's Gap shelter 1 in the Kimberley, Australia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 1998, 7: 179–188.
  82. McNeill J., Barrie F.R., Buck W.R., Demoulin V., Greuter W., Hawksworth D.L., Herendeen P.S., Knapp S., Marhold K., Prado J., Prud'homme van Reine W.F., Smith J.F., Wiersema J.H., Turland N.J. International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code): Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile, 2012, 154: 1–274.
  83. Michalková E., Letz D.R. Salsola collina, S. kali subsp. ruthenica, S. soda, S. tragus. In: K. Marhold (ed.), IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 18. Taxon, 2014, 63(6): 1390, E18–E20.
  84. Miquel F.A.W. Flora van Nederlandsch Indie [alternative Latin title: Flora Indiae Batavae]. Amsterdam: C.G. van der Post & Utrecht: C. van der Post Jr. & Leipzig: Fried. Fleischer, 1855, vol. 1(1), xxiv + 1116 pp. + XIV tab.
  85. Moquin-Tandon A. Chenopodearum monographica enumeratio. Parisiis [Paris]: Sumptibus Victoris Masson, 1840, ix + 182 pp.
  86. Moquin-Tandon A. Ordo Salsolaceae. In: A. De Candolle. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis. Parisiis [Paris]: Apud P.-J. Loss, Bibliopolam, 1849, vol. 13(2), pp. 41–219.
  87. Mosyakin S.L. New taxa of Corispermum L. (Chenopodiaceae), with preliminary comments on taxonomy of the genus in North America. Novon, 1995, 5(4): 340–353.
  88. Mosyakin S.L. A taxonomic synopsis of the genus Salsola L. (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 1996, 83: 387–395.
  89. Mosyakin S.L. Corispermum. In: Flora of North America north of Mexico. Ed. by Flora of North America Editorial Committee. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003a, vol. 4, pp. 313–320.
  90. Mosyakin S.L. Salsola. In: Flora of North America north of Mexico. Ed. by Flora of North America Editorial Committee. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003b, vol. 4, pp. 398–403.
  91. Mosyakin S.L. Systematics, phytogeography and genesis of the family Chenopodiaceae Vent. Dr. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation: Kyiv, 2003c, 525 pp.
  92. Mosyakin S.L. The first record of Salsola paulsenii (Chenopodiaceae) in Ukraine, with taxonomic and nomenclatural comments on related taxa. Ukrainian Botanical Journal [Український ботанічний журнал], 2017a, 74(5): 409–420.
  93. Mosyakin S.L. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Pontic-Mediterranean coastal and some Australasian taxa of Salsola (Chenopodiaceae). Ukrainian Botanical Journal [Український ботанічний журнал], 2017b, 74(6): 521–531.
  94. Mosyakin S.L., Bezusko L.G., Mosyakin A.S. Origins of native vascular plants of Antarctica: Comments from a historical phytogeography viewpoint. Cytology and Genetics, 2007, 41(5): 308–316.
  95. Mosyakin S.L., Freitag H., Rilke S. Kali versus Salsola: the instructive story of a questionable nomenclatural resurrection. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 2017, 64: 18–30.
  96. Mosyakin S.L., Iamonico D. Nomenclatural changes in Chenopodium (incl. Rhagodia) (Chenopodiaceae), with considerations on relationships of some Australian taxa and their possible Eurasian relatives. Nuytsia, 2017, 28: 255–271.
  97. Mosyakin S.L., Rilke S., Freitag H. Proposal to conserve the name Salsola (Chenopodiaceae s. str.; Amaranthaceae sensu APG) with a conserved type. Taxon, 2014, 63: 1134–1135.
  98. Mueller F.J.H., von. Second systematic index of the plants of Victoria, comprising those which were examined between September, 1853, and October, 1854 [Victoria – Second General Report of the Government Botanist on the vegetation of the Colony]. Melbourne: John Ferres, Government Printer, 1854, 20 pp.
  99. Mueller F. [F.J.H.], von. Iconography of Australian salsolaceous plants, 9 [ninth decade]. Melbourne: Robert S. Brain, Government Printer, 1891, tab. LXXXI–XC.
  100. Murphy D.J., Crayn D.M. Australian comparative phytogeography: A review. In: Handbook of Australasian biogeography. Ed. M.C. Ebach. Boca Raton (Florida, US); London (UK); New York: CRC Press, 2017, pp. 129–153.
  101. Northern Territory Herbarium (project management: I. Cowie, D. Lewis). FloraNT – Northern Territory flora online. Palmerston, N.T.: Department of Land Resource Management, 2013–onward. Available from, accessed 4 February 2018.
  102. Pearson M. Great Southern Land: the maritime exploration of Terra Australis. Canberra: The Australian Government, Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2005, iv + 155 pp.
  103. Petrie D. Occurrence of Zoysia pungens (Willd.) in Central Otago. New Zealand Journal of Science 1885, 2(9): 454.
  104. Petrie D. List of the flowering plants indigenous to Otago, with indications on their distribution and range in altitude. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1895 [issued 1896], 28 (11 in New Ser.): 540–591.
  105. Piirainen M., Liebisch O., Kadereit G. Phylogeny, biogeography, systematics and taxonomy of Salicornioideae (Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae) – A cosmopolitan, highly specialized hygrohalophyte lineage dating back to the Oligocene. Taxon, 2017, 66(1): 109–132.
  106. Rilke S. Revision der Sektion Salsola s.l. der Gattung Salsola (Chenopodiaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica, 1999, 149: 1–190.
  107. Ryan F.J., Ayres D.R. Molecular markers indicate two cryptic, genetically divergent populations of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) in California. Canadian Journal of Botany, 2000, 78: 59–67.
  108. Ryan F.J., Mosyakin S.L., Pitcairn M.J. Molecular comparisons of Salsola tragus from California and Ukraine. Canadian Journal of Botany, 2007, 85(2): 224–229.
  109. Schmidt S.K., Reeves F.B. Interference between Salsola kali L. seedlings: implications for plant succession. Plant and Soil, 1989, 116: 107–110.
  110. Schönberger I., Wilton A.D., Boardman K.F., Breitwieser I., Cochrane M., de Lange P.J., de Pauw B., Fife A.J., Ford K.A., Gibb E.S., Glenny D.S., Korver M.A., Novis P.M.,Prebble J.M.,Redmond D.N.,Smissen R.D., Tawiri K. Checklist of the New Zealand Flora – Seed Plants. Lincoln, Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research, 2017, 393 pp.
  111. Schupp E.W. Dispersal ability, plant. In: Encyclopedia of biological invasions. Eds. D. Simberloff, M. Rejmánek. Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press, 2011, pp. 159–165.
  112. Schüssler C., Freitag H., Koteyeva N., Schmidt D., Edwards G., Voznesenskaya E., Kadereit G. Molecular phylogeny and forms of photosynthesis in tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae). Journal of Experimental Botany, 2017, 68(2): 207–223.
  113. Shepherd K.A., MacFarlane T.D., Waycott M. Phylogenetic analysis of the Australian Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae) based on morphology and nuclear DNA. Australian Systematic Botany, 2005, 18: 89–115.
  114. Shepherd K.A., Waycott M., Calladine A. Radiation of the Australian Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae) – based on evidence from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany, 2004, 91: 1387–1397.
  115. Smith L., Hrusa G.F., Gaskin J.F. How many species of Salsola tumbleweeds (Russian thistle) occur in the Western USA? In: Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 11–16 September, 2011. Hilo, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 2013, p. 177.
  116. Spanoghe J.B. Prodromus florae timorensis [Part 2]. Linnaea, 1841, 15: 314–350.
  117. Stallings G.P., Thill D.C., Mallory-Smith C.A., Lass L.W. Plant movement and seed dispersal of Russian thistle (Salsola iberica). Weed Science, 1995, 43: 63–69.
  118. Steudel E.T. Nomenclator botanicus, seu: Synonymia plantarum universalis, enumerans ordine alphabetic nomina atque synonyma, tum generica tum specifica, et a Linnaeo et a recentioribus de re botanica scriptoribus plantis phanerogamis imposita, Editio secunda ex novo elaborate et aucta [Ed. 2]. Stuttgardtiae [Stuttgart] & Tubingae [Tubingen]: Typis et sumptibus J.G. Cottae, 1841, vol. 2, 810 pp.
  119. Stuessy T.F., König Ch., López Sepúlveda P. Paraphyly and endemic genera of oceanic islands: Implications for conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014, 100(1–2): 50–78.
  120. Sukhorukov A.P. The carpology of the family Chenopodiaceae in relations to problems of phylogeny, systematics and diagnostics of its representatives. Tula: Grif i K, 2014, 400 pp.
  121. Sukhorukov A.P.,Mavrodiev E.V.,StruwigM.,Nilova M.V., Dzhalilova K.K., Balandin S.A., Erst A., Krinitsyna A.A. One-seeded fruits in the Core Caryophyllales: Their origin and structural diversity. PLoS ONE, 2015, 10(2): e0117974 (38 pp.).
  122. Sykes W.R. Checklist of dicotyledons naturalised in New Zealand. 14. Chenopodiales and Polygonales. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1982, 20: 325–331.
  123. Thiers B. Index Herbariorum. A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium. 2018–onward. Available from:, accessed 26 January 2018.
  124. Toderich K.N., Shuyskaya E.N., Tana F., Ismail S., Gismatullina L.G., Li E.V. Adaptive fruit structural mechanisms of Asiatic Salsola species and its germplasm conservation and utilization. Journal of Arid Land Studies, 2012, 22(1): 73–76.
  125. Tzvelev N.N. Notes on Chenopodiaceae of Eastern Europe. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 1993, 50(1): 78–85.
  126. Tzvelev N.N. Tribe Salsoleae. In: Flora Europae Orientalis. Ed. N.N. Tzvelev. St. Petersburg: Mir i Semya-95, 1996, vol. 9, pp. 74–92.
  127. Ulbrich E. Chenopodiaceae. In: Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 2. Eds. A. Engler, K. Prantl. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1994, vol. 16c, pp. 379–584.
  128. Vallance T.G., Moore D.T., Groves E.W. Nature's investigator: the diary of Robert Brown in Australia, 1801–1805. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study, 2001, xii + 666 pp.
  129. van der Pijl L. Principles of dispersal in higher plants. Ed. 3, revised and expanded. Berlin; Heidelberg; New York: Springer, 1982, x + 216 pp.
  130. van Rheede van Oudtshoorn K., van Rooyen M.W. Dispersal biology in desert plants. Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1999, xii + 242 pp.
  131. Vittoz P., Engler R. Seed dispersal distances: a typology based on dispersal modes and plant traits. Botanica Helvetica, 2007, 117: 109–124.
  132. Voznesenskaya E.V., Koteyeva N.K., Akhani H., Roalson E.H., Edwards G.E. Structural and physiological analyses in Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) indicate multiple transitions among C3, intermediate, and C4 photosynthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 2013, 64: 3583–3604.
  133. Walsh N.G. Salsola. In: Flora of Victoria. Eds. N.G. Walsh, T.J. Entwisle. Melbourne: Inkata Press, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 197–199.
  134. Walsh N.G., Messina A. (updated 2015). Salsola tragus. In: VicFlora: Flora of Victoria online. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, 2015–onward. Available from, accessed 26 January 2018.
  135. Welles S.L., Ellstrand N.C. Rapid range expansion of a newly formed allopolyploid weed in the genus Salsola. American Journal of Botany, 2016a, 103(4): 663–667.
  136. Welles S.R., Ellstrand N.C. Genetic structure reveals a history of multiple independent origins followed by admixture in the allopolyploid weed Salsola ryanii. Evolutionary Applications, 2016b, 9: 871–878.
  137. Wen Z.-B., Zhang M.-L., Zhu G.-L., Sanderson S.C. Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data from ITS, psbB–psbH, and rbcL, with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2010, 288: 25–42.
  138. Wen Z.B., Zhang M.L. Anatomical types of leaves and assimilating shoots and carbon 13C/12C isotope fractionation in Chinese representatives of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae). Flora – Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 2011, 206(8): 720–730.
  139. Wightman G.M., Short P.S. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora of the Darwin Region. Eds. P.S. Short, I.D. Cowie. Palmerston, N.T.: Northern Territory Herbarium, Department of Natural Resources, Environment, the Arts and Sport, 2011, vol. 1, pp. 1–8. Available from:, accessed 3 February 2018.
  140. Wilson K.L. Report of the General Committee: 20. Taxon, 2017, 66: 981.
  141. Wilson P.G. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora of Australia. Ed. A.S. George. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1984, vol. 4, pp. 81–317.
  142. Wilson P.G., Chinnock R.J. Chenopodiaceae (version 1). In: Flora of South Australia (ed. 5). Ed. J. Kellermann. Adelaide: State Herbarium of South Australia, 2013, 111 pp. Available from:, accessed 26 January 2018.
  143. Winkworth R.C., Hennion F., Prinzing A., Wagstaff S.J. Explaining the disjunct distributions of austral plants: the roles of Antarctic and direct dispersal routes. Journal of Biogeography, 2015, 42(7): 1197–1209.
  144. Winkworth R.C., Wagstaff S.J., Glenny D., Lockhart P.J. Plant dispersal N.E.W.S. from New Zealand. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2002, 17(11): 514–520.
  145. Young J.A., Evans R.A. Barbwire Russian thistle seed germination. Journal of Range Management, 1979, 32: 390–394.
  146. Zhu G.L., Mosyakin S.L., Clemants S.E. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora of China. Eds. Z.Y. Wu, P.H. Raven, D.Y. Hong. Beijing: Science Press & St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003, vol. 5, pp. 351–414.