ISSN 2415-8860 (online), ISSN 0372-4123 (print)
logoUkrainian Botanical Journal
  • 2 of 6
Ukr. Bot. J. 2021, 78(2): 96–111
Plant Taxonomy, Geography and Floristics

Lockdown botany 2020: some noteworthy records of alien plants in Kyiv City and Kyiv Region

Mosyakin S.L.1, Mosyakin A.S.2

Noteworthy records of 11 alien plant species in Kyiv City and Kyiv Region made mainly in 2020 are discussed. In particular, new localities of the following taxa are reported: Amaranthus spinosus, Artemisia tournefortiana, Chenopodium ucrainicum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Datura innoxia, Dysphania ambrosioides, Erechtites hieraciifolius, Mesembryanthemum ×vascosilvae (M. cordifolium × M. haeckelianum; recently described as Aptenia ×vascosilvae and reported here for the first time for Ukraine; earlier this ornamental hybrid was misidentified as Aptenia cordifolia), Parietaria officinalis, Phytolacca americana, Thladiantha dubia. The presence in Ukraine of several additional species, such as Datura wrightii and Phytolacca acinosa s.l. (incl. P. esculenta), that may occur as escaped near places of their cultivation, is reported; these species may be confused with D. innoxia and P. americana, respectively. The growing role of alien plants escaped from cultivation (ergasiophytes) in the present-day processes of formation of the alien flora of Ukraine is emphasized.

Supplementary Material. Electronic Supplement (Figures E1–E6, e1–e3) is available in the online version of this article.

Keywords: alien plants, Amaranthus, Artemisia, Celastrus, Chenopodium, Datura, Dysphania, Erechtites, flora, Kyiv, Mesembryanthemum, Phytolacca, Ukraine

Full text: PDF (Eng) 10M

  1. Alegro A., Bogdanović S., Rešetnik I., Boršić I. 2010. Thladiantha dubia Bunge (Cucurbitaceae), [a] new alien species in [the] Croatian flora. Natura Croatica, 19(1): 281–286.
  2. Barclay A.S. 1959. New considerations in an old genus: Datura. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, 18(6): 245–272. Available at: and
  3. Barkley T.M. 2006. Erechtites. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 20. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 602–604.
  4. Bartoszek W. 2019. Nowe stanowisko Erechtites hieracifolia (Asteraceae) w Karpatach polskich. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 26(2): 407–411.
  5. Bayón N.D. 2015. Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 101(2): 261–383.
  6. Belcher R.O. 1956. A revision of the genus Erechtites (Compositae), with inquiries into Senecio and Arrhenechthites. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 43(1): 1–85.
  7. Benítez G., March-Salas M., Villa-Kamel A., Cháves-Jiménez U., Hernández J., Montes-Osuna N., Moreno-Chocano J., Cariñanos P. 2018. The genus Datura L. (Solanaceae) in Mexico and Spain – Ethnobotanical perspective at the interface of medical and illicit uses. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 219: 133–151.
  8. Berezkina V.I., Gubar L.M., Menshova L.M., Peregrym M.M. 2007. Preliminary list of wild [spontaneous] species of vascular plants of the O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden. In: Solomakha V.A. (ed.). O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden. Index plantarum. Kyiv: Phytosociocentre, pp. 292–315.
  9. Boiko G.V. 2009. New data on alien species of the genus Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) in the Ukrainian flora. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 66(6): 833–835.
  10. Boiko G.V., Kolomiychuk V.P. 2015. Additions to the flora of the northern coast of the Sea of Azov. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 72(4): 340–343.
  11. Borak Martan V., Šoštarić R. 2016. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae), a new alien species in the Croatian flora. Acta Botanica Croatica, 75(2): 206–209.
  12. Bordzilovskyi [Bordzilowski] E.I. 1952. Phytolaccaceae. In: Kotov M.I. (ed.), Flora URSR, vol. 4. Kyiv: Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian RSR Publ., pp. 415–417.
  13. Buono S., Magrini S., Scoppola A. 2018. Datura wrightii Regel (Solanaceae), pp. 49–50. In: Galasso G., Domina G., Adorni M., Ardenghi N.M.G., Bonari G., Buono S., Cancellieri L., Chianese G., Ferretti G., Fiaschi T., Forte L., Guarino R., Labadessa R., Lastrucci L., Lazzaro L., Magrini S., Minuto L., Mossini S., Olivieri N., Scoppola A., Stinca A., Turcato C., Nepi C. Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 5. Italian Botanist, 5: 45–56.
  14. Burgoyne P.M., Bredenkamp C.L. 2019. Mesembryanthemum. In: Bredenkamp C.L. (ed.). A Flora of the Eastern Cape Province, vol. 1 [Strelitzia, vol. 41]. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), pp. 235–241.
  15. Byalt V.V. 2004. Aizoaceae. In: Tzvelev N.N. (ed.). Flora Europae Orientalis, vol. 11. Moscow; St. Petersburg: KMK Scientific Press, pp. 108–113.
  16. Byalt V.V. 2012. Aizoaceae. In: Tzvelev N.N., Geltman D.V. (eds.). Conspectus Florae Europae Orientalis, vol. 1. St. Petersburg; Moscow: KMK Scientific Press, pp. 194–196.
  17. Bye R., Sosa V. 2013. Molecular phylogeny of the jimsonweed genus Datura (Solanaceae). Systematic Botany, 38(3): 818–829.
  18. Cameron E.K., de Lange P.J. 2002. American fireweed (Erechtites hieraciifolia) moves north. Auckland Botanical Society Journal 57(2): 102–103. Available at:
  19. Clement E.J. 1998a. Datura. In: Rich T.C.G., Jermy A.C. (eds.), Plant Crib 1998. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles. Available at: (Accessed 15 February 2021).
  20. Clement E.J. 1998b. Phytolacca. In: Rich T.C.G., Jermy A.C. (eds.), Plant Crib 1998. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles. Available at: (Accessed 15 February 2021).
  21. DAISIE. 2009. Handbook of alien species in Europe [Invading Nature – Springer Series in Invasion Ecology, vol. 3]. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands [electronic edition: Springer Science + Business Media B.V.], xxviii + 399 pp.
  22. Darbyshire S.J., Francis, A., DiTommaso A., Clements D.R. 2012. The biology of Canadian weeds. 150 Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 92(4): 729–746.
  23. Dehnen-Schmutz K., Touza J., Perrings C., Williamson M. 2007. A century of the ornamental plant trade and its impact on invasion success. Diversity and Distributions, 13(5): 527–534.
  24. Dubovik D.V. 2019. Potentially invasive plant species in the flora of Belarus. In: Materials of the International Scientific Conference "Flora and Vegetation in a Changing World: Problems of Studying, Preserving and Rational Use". Minsk: Kolorgrad, pp. 196–202.
  25. Dullinger I., Wessely J., Bossdorf O., Dawson W., Essl F., Gattringer A., Klonner G., Kreft H., Kuttner M., Moser D., Pergl J., Pyšek P., Thuiller W., van Kleunen M., Weigelt P., Winter M., Dullinger S. 2017. Climate change will increase the naturalization risk from garden plants in Europe. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 26(1): 43–53.
  26. Dupin J., Smith S.D. 2018. Phylogenetics of Datureae (Solanaceae), including description of the new genus Trompettia and re-circumscription of the tribe. Taxon, 67(2): 359–375.
  27. Dvirna T.S. 2019. Ergasiophytes of the alien fraction of the flora of Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District (Ukraine): checklist and analysis. Geo&Bio (Kyiv), 18: 21–36.
  28. El Mokni R. 2019. Datura wrightii Regel, pp. 107–108. In: von Raab-Straube E., Raus Th. (eds.). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 10 [Notulae ad floram euro-mediterraneam pertinentes No. 39]. Willdenowia, 49(1): 95–115.
  29. Geeta R., Gharaibeh W. 2007. Historical evidence for a pre-Columbian presence of Datura in the Old World and implications for a first millennium transfer from the New World. Journal of Biosciences, 32 (Supplement issue 3): 1227–1244.
  30. Gerbaulet M. 2002. Aptenia: Mesembryanthemoideae. In: Hartmann H.E.K. (ed.). Illustrated handbook of succulent plants: Aizoaceae A–E. Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 66–68.
  31. Gerbaulet M. 2012. One or many genera in Mesembryanthemoideae (Aizoaceae)? Discussion of a conflict in genus perception. Bradleya, 30: 187–198.
  32. Gerbaulet M. 2017. Aptenia: Mesembryanthemoideae. In: Hartmann H.E.K. (ed.). Illustrated handbook of succulent plants: Aizoaceae. Ed. 2. Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 117–122.
  33. Górski P., Czarna A., Tokarska-Guzik B. 2003. Distribution of Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. (Asteraceae) in Poland. In: Zając A., Zając M., Zemanek B. (eds.). Phytogeographical problems of synanthropic plants. Cracow: Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, pp. 147–153.
  34. Gudžinskas Z. 2017. Alien herbaceous plant species new to Lithuania. Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 33–42.
  35. Gudžinskas Z., Petrulaitis L., Žalneravičius E. 2017. New woody alien plant species recorded in Lithuania. Botanica Lithuanica, 23(2): 153–168.
  36. Gudžinskas Z., Petrulaitis L., Žalneravičius E. 2020. Emerging invasion threat of the liana Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) in Europe. NeoBiota, 56: 1–25.
  37. Gudžinskas Z., Taura L. 2020. New alien plant species recorded in South Lithuania. Botanica (Vilnius), 26(2): 170–183.
  38. Haegi L. 1976. Taxonomic account of Datura L. in Australia with a note on Brugmansia Pers. Australian Journal of Botany, 24(3): 415–435.
  39. Haeuser E., Block S., Dawson W., Thuiller W., Dullinger S., Bossdorf O., Carboni M., Conti L., Moser D., Winter M., Klonner G., Weigelt P., Münkemüller T., Parepa M., Talluto M.V. 2018. European ornamental garden flora as an invasion debt under climate change. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55(5): 2386–2395.
  40. Heenan P.B., de Lange P.J., Cameron E.K., Parris B.S. 2008. Checklist of dicotyledons, gymnosperms, and pteridophytes naturalised or casual in New Zealand: additional records 2004–06. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 46(2): 257–283.
  41. Hernández-Ledesma P., Berendsohn W.G., Borsch T., von Mering S., Akhani H., Arias S., Castañeda-Noa I., Eggli U., Eriksson R., Flores-Olvera H., Fuentes-Bazán S., Kadereit G., Klak C., Korotkova N., Nyffeler R., Ocampo G., Ochoterena H., Oxelman B., Rabeler R.K., Sanchez A., Schlumpberger B.O., Uotila P. 2015. A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. Willdenowia, 45(3): 281–383.
  42. Holub J., Jirásek V. 1967. Zur Vereinheitlichung der Terminologie in der Phytogeographie. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica, 2: 69–113.
  43. Klak C. 2012. Mesembryanthemum. In: Manning J., Goldblatt P. (eds.). Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, vol. 1: The Core Cape Flora [Strelitzia, vol. 29]. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), pp. 293–296.
  44. Klak C. 2013. Mesembryanthemum. In: Snijman D.A. (ed.). Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, vol. 2: The Extra Cape Flora [Strelitzia, vol. 30]. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), pp. 208–217.
  45. Klak C., Bruyns P.V. 2013. A new infrageneric classification for Mesembryanthemum (Aizoaceae: Mesembryanthemoideae). Bothalia, 43(2): 197–206.
  46. Klak C., Bruyns P.V., Hedderson T.A. 2007. A phylogeny and new classification for Mesembryanthemoideae (Aizoaceae). Taxon, 56(3): 737–756.
  47. Klak C., Hanáček P., Bruyns P.V. 2014. Phylogeny and taxonomy for Mesembryanthemum subg. Volkeranthus (AizoaceaeMesembryanthemoideae). South African Journal of Botany, 95: 112–122.
  48. Klak C., Khunou A., Reeves G., Hedderson T. 2003. A phylogenetic hypothesis for the Aizoaceae (Caryophyllales) based on four plastid DNA regions. American Journal of Botany, 90(10): 1433–1445.
  49. Kolomiychuk V., Shevera M., Vorobyov E., Orlov O., Pryadko O. 2019. Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. (Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl), new for the Kyiv Polissia alien species. Visnyk of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Biology, 3(79): 37–43.
  50. Konaikova V.O., Peregrym M.M., Gubar L.M. 2015. Additions to a list of [the] spontaneous flora of O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden of [the] Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Studia Biologica (Kyiv), 9(2): 159–168.
  51. Kondratyuk E.M., Burda R.I., Ostapko V.M., Kuskov A.E., Gumech V.S., Grynevska O.G. 1987. Supplements to the "Synopsis of the flora of the South-East of Ukraine". Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 43(3): 23–27.
  52. Kuluev B.R., Shvets D.Y., Golovanov Y.M., Probatova N.S. 2019. Thladiantha dubia (Cucurbitaceae) in the Republic of Bashkortostan as a dangerous weed with high invasive potential. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 10(2): 160–170.
  53. Lakušić D., Rat M., Anačkov G., Jovanović S. 2017. Datura inoxia Mill. (Solanaceae), a new alien species in Serbia. Biologica Nyssana, 8(1): 47–51.
  54. Leicht-Young S.A., Pavlovic N.B., Grundel R., Frohnapple K.J. 2007. Distinguishing native (Celastrus scandens L.) and invasive (C. orbiculatus Thunb.) bittersweet species using morphological characteristics. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 134(4): 441–450.
  55. Luna Cavazos M., Jiao M., Bye R. 2000. Phenetic analysis of Datura section Dutra (Solanaceae) in Mexico. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 133(4): 493–507.
  56. Maslo S., Šarić Š. 2019. Datura innoxia Mill. (Solanaceae), a new alien species in the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thaiszia – Journal of Botany, 29(2): 225–230.
  57. Mayorov S.R. 2018. Datura wrightii Regel (Solanaceae) – a new alien species for the flora of Russia. Transactions of the Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Biogeography, 8: 154–155.
  58. Mosyakin S.L. 1989. Floristic finds in the city of Kiev and its environs. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 46(4): 21–23.
  59. Mosyakin S.L. 1990. New and noteworthy alien species of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) in the Ukrainian SSR. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 47(4): 10–13.
  60. Mosyakin S.L. 1991. Preliminary list of recent additions to the alien flora of Ukraine. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 48(4): 28–34.
  61. Mosyakin S.L. 1992. Floristic notes on alien plants in Kiev. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 49(6): 36–39.
  62. Mosyakin S.L. 1995a. The genus Amaranthus L. (Amaranthaceae) in Ukraine: an overview. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 52(2): 225–234.
  63. Mosyakin S.L. 1995b. Additional data on distribution of some species of Amaranthus L. (Amaranthaceae) in Ukraine. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 52(3): 384–387.
  64. Mosyakin S.L. 1996. Amaranthus. In: Tzvelev N.N. (ed.). Flora Europae Orientalis, vol. 9. St. Petersburg: Mir i Sem'ya-95, pp. 11–18.
  65. Mosyakin S.L., Fedoronchuk M.M. 1999. Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. Kiev: M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, NAS of Ukraine, xxiv + 346 pp.
  66. Mosyakin S.L., Mandák B. 2020. Chenopodium ucrainicum (Chenopodiaceae / Amaranthaceae sensu APG), a new diploid species: a morphological description and pictorial guide. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 77(4): 237–248.
  67. Mosyakin S.L., Robertson K.R. 1996. New infrageneric taxa and combinations in Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae). Annales Botanici Fennici, 33(4): 275–281. Available at:
  68. Mosyakin S.L., Robertson K.R. 2003. Amaranthus. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 4. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 410–435.
  69. Nielsen H. 2001. Phytolaccaceae. In: Jonsell B. (ed.). Flora Nordica, vol. 2. Stockholm: Bergius Foundation, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, pp. 73–74.
  70. Nienaber M.A., Thieret J.W. 2003. Phytolaccaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 4. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 3–11.
  71. Orlov O.O., Yakushenko D.M. 2011. Distribution and eco-coenological peculiarities of Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. (Asteraceae) in Ukraine. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 68(6): 795–804.
  72. Panasenko N.N., Anishchenko L.N. 2020. Thladiantha dubia Bunge in Bryansk Region: distribution, ecology, and biochemical characteristics. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 11(3): 268–276.
  73. Pavlovic N.B., Young S.L., Grundel R., Frohnapple K.J. 2007. American and Oriental Bittersweet Identification. GLSC Fact Sheet 2007-2. Ann Arbor, Michigan: U.S. Department of the Interior: U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, 2 pp. Available at:
  74. Pergl J., Sádlo J., Petřík P., Danihelka J., Chrtek J., Hejda M., Moravcová L., Perglová I., Štajerová K., Pyšek P. 2016. Dark side of the fence: ornamental plants as a source of wild-growing flora in the Czech Republic. Preslia, 88(2): 163–184.
  75. Pliszko A., Klich S. 2018. A new record of Phytolacca acinosa (Phytolaccaceae) in Poland. Acta Musei Silesiae Scientiae Naturales, 67: 181–183.
  76. Pooler M.R., Dix R.L., Feely J. 2002. Interspecific hybridizations between the native bittersweet, Celastrus scandens, and the introduced invasive species, C. orbiculatus. Southeastern Naturalist, 1(1): 69–76.[0069:IHBTNB]2.0.CO;2
  77. POWO. 2020–onward. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available at: (Accessed 20 August 2020 and 15 February 2021).
  78. Preston C.D., Sell P.D. 1988. The Aizoaceae naturalized in the British Isles. Watsonia, 17: 217–245.
  79. Prokudin Yu.N. (ed.) et al. 1987. Identification manual of higher [vascular] plants of Ukraine. Kiev [Kyiv]: Naukova Dumka, 548 pp.
  80. Protopopova V.V., Shevera M.V. 2014. Ergasiophytes of the Ukrainian flora. Biodiversity: Research and Conservation, 35(1): 31–46.
  81. Pyšek P., Richardson D.M., Rejmánek M., Webster G.L., Williamson M., Kirschner J. 2004. Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon, 53(1): 131–143.
  82. Robinson D.W., Brown K., McMenemy M., Dennany L., Baker M.J., Allan P., Cartwright C., Bernard J., Sturt F., Kotoula E., Jazwa C., Gill K.M., Randolph-Quinney P., Ash T., Bedford C., Gandy D., Armstrong M., Miles J., Haviland D. 2020. Datura quids at Pinwheel Cave, California, provide unambiguous confirmation of the ingestion of hallucinogens at a rock art site. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 117(49): 31026–31037.
  83. Sáez L., Aymerich P. 2020. A new nomenclatural combination in Mesembryanthemum L. (Mesembryanthemoideae, Aizoaceae). Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural, 84: 71. Available at:
  84. Sáez L., Bibiloni G., Rita J., Gil L., Moragues E., Romero Zarco C., Vicens J. 2015. Additions and amendments to the flora of the Balearic Islands. Orsis, 29: 173–192.
  85. Shynder O.I. 2019a. Spontaneous flora of [the] M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine (Kyiv). 2. Methodological problems and criteria for selection of escaped plants in botanical garden conditions. Plant Introduction, [vol. of 2019] No. 2: 3–16.
  86. Shynder O.I. 2019b. Spontaneous flora of [the] M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine (Kyiv). 3. Escaped plants. Plant Introduction, [vol. of 2019] 3: 14–29.
  87. Shynder O.I., Glukhova S.A., Mykhaylyk S.M. 2018. Spontaneous flora of the Syrets Arboretum (Kyiv). Introduktsiya Roslyn, [vol. of 2018] No. 2: 54–64.
  88. Smith G.F., Silva V., Figueiredo E. 2019a. Aptenia ‘Red Apple’ (Aizoaceae / Mesembryanthemaceae), a common cultivar derived from a hybrid between two Aptenia species endemic to southern Africa. Bradleya, 37: 179– 183.
  89. Smith G.F., Silva V., Figueiredo E. 2019b. Representatives of Aptenia N.E.Br. (Aizoaceae / Mesembryanthemaceae), an endemic southern African genus, naturalised in Portugal. Bradleya, 37: 184–190.
  90. Smith G.F., Laguna E., Verloove F., Ferrer-Gallego P.P. 2020. Aptenia ×vascosilvae (A. cordifolia × A. haeckeliana) (Aizoaceae), the new nothospecies from which the horticulturally popular cultivar Aptenia ‘Red Apple’ was derived. Phytotaxa, 441(2): 221–224.
  91. Symon D., Haegi L.A.R. 1991. Datura (Solanaceae) is a New World genus. In: Hawkes J.G., Lester R.N., Nee M., Estrada N. (eds.). Solanaceae III: taxonomy, chemistry, evolution. London: Academic Press, pp. 197–210.
  92. Thiers B. 2008–onward. Index Herbariorum. A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium. Available from: Accessed 15 February 2021.
  93. Tokaryuk A.I., Chorney I.I., Budzhak V.V. 2017. Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. (Asteraceae) in meadow complexes of Pocuttya. Biological Systems, 9(1): 144–146.
  94. Tretyakov D.I., Dubovik D.I., Orlov A.A., Iakushenko D.N. 2011. Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. (Asteraceae) in Belarus and Ukraine. Botanika (Minsk), 40: 138–147.
  95. Turland N.J., Wiersema J.H., Barrie F.R., Greuter W., Hawksworth D.L., Herendeen P.S., Knapp S., Kusber W.-H., Li D.-Z., Marhold K., May T.W., McNeill J., Monro A.M., Prado J., Price M.J., Smith G.F. 2018. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress, Shenzhen, China, July 2017 [Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 159]. Glashütten: Koeltz Botanical Books, xxxviii + 254 pp.
  96. Tyshchenko O.V., Tyshchenko V.M., Kucheryava L.F. 2013. A new record of Celastrus scandens L. (Celastraceae) at [the] protected area Rizanyi Yar (Cherkasy Region). Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 70(5): 646–648.
  97. Tzvelev N.N. 2004a. Celastraceae. In: Tzvelev N.N. (ed.). Flora Europae Orientalis, vol. 11. Moscow; St. Petersburg: KMK Scientific Press, pp. 437–449.
  98. Tzvelev N.N. 2004b. Phytolaccaceae. In: Tzvelev N.N. (ed.). Flora Europae Orientalis, vol. 11. Moscow; St. Petersburg: KMK Scientific Press, pp. 102–103.
  99. Tzvelev N.N. 2012. Phytolaccaceae. In: Tzvelev N.N., Geltman D.V. (eds.). Conspectus Florae Europae Orientalis, vol. 1. St. Petersburg; Moscow: KMK Scientific Press, pp. 192–193.
  100. van Kleunen M., Essl F., Pergl J., Brundu G., Carboni M., Dullinger S., Early R., González-Moreno P., Groom Q.J., Hulme P.E., Kueffer C., Kühn I., Máguas C., Maurel N., Novoa A., Parepa M., Pyšek P., Seebens H., Tanner R., Touza J., Verbrugge L., Weber E., Dawson W., Kreft H., Weigelt P., Winter M., Klonner G., Talluto M.V., Dehnen-Schmutz K. 2018. The changing role of ornamental horticulture in alien plant invasions. Biological Reviews, 93(3): 1421–1437.
  101. Verloove F. 2006. Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium (1800– 2005). Scripta Botanica Belgica, 39: 1–89.
  102. Verloove F. 2008. Datura wrightii (Solanaceae), a neglected xenophyte, new to Spain. Bouteloua, 4: 37–40.
  103. Verloove F. 2010–onward. Phytolacca acinosa. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. Meise Botanic Garden. Available at: (Accessed 15 February 2021).
  104. Verloove F., Galasso G., Banfi E., Ardenghi N.M.G. 2010. Notula 34. Datura wrightii Regel (Solanaceae), p. 388. In: Nepi C., Peccenini S., Peruzzi L. (eds). Notulae alla flora esotica d'Italia: 2 (22–37). Informatore Botanico Italiano, 42(1): 369–389.
  105. Vojík M., Sádlo J., Petřík P., Pyšek P., Man M., Pergl J. 2020. Two faces of parks: sources of invasion and habitat for threatened native plants. Preslia, 92(4): 353–373.
  106. Waselkov K.E., Boleda A.S., Olsen K.M. 2018. A phylogeny of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) based on several low-copy nuclear loci and chloroplast regions. Systematic Botany, 43(2): 439–458.
  107. Williams P.A., Timmins S.M. 2003. Climbing spindle berry (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) biology, ecology, and impacts in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Government, Department of Conservation, 28 pp.
  108. Wyrzykiewicz-Raszewska M. 2009. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. – a new anthropophyte in the flora of Poland. Steciana, 13: 3–7. [Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu, vol. 388]. Available at:
  109. Zaniewski P.T., Wołkowycki D., Szczepkowski A., Otręba A., Zaniewska E., Kębłowska A. 2020. Patterns of invasion, biology and ecology of Erechtites hieraciifolia in the northern expansion range in Europe (C and NE Poland). Baltic Forestry, 26(1): art. 409 (12 pp.).
  110. Zaya D.N., Leicht-Young S.A., Pavlovic N.B., Feldheim K.A., Ashley M.V. 2015. Genetic characterization of hybridization between native and invasive bittersweet vines (Celastrus spp.). Biological Invasions, 17(10): 2975–2988.
  111. Zaya D.N., Leicht-Young S.A., Pavlovic N.B., Hetrea C.S., Ashley M.V. 2017. Mislabeling of an invasive vine (Celastrus orbiculatus) as a native congener (C. scandens) in horticulture. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 10(4): 313–321.
  112. Zieliński J., Petrova A., Natcheva R. 2012. New species for the Bulgarian flora. Phytologia Balcanica, 18(2): 197– 204. Available at:
  113. Zhang Z.-X., Funston A.M. 2008. Celastrus. In: Wu Z.-Y., Raven P.H., Hong D.-Y. (eds.). Flora of China, vol. 11. Beijing: Science Press & St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, pp. 466–474.