ISSN 2415-8860 (online), ISSN 0372-4123 (print)
logoUkrainian Botanical Journal
  • 7 of 9
Ukr. Bot. J. 2018, 75(5): 470–479
Structural Botany

Morphological features of generative organs of Salicornia perennans (S. prostrata) (Chenopodiaceae) of the Kuialnytsky Estuary coast

Shykhaleyeva G.M.1, Tsarenko O.M.2, Tsymbalyuk Z.M.2, Ennan A.A.-A.1, Kiryushkina A.M.1

Macro- and micromorphological characters of the generative organs of two microcenopopulations of Salicornia perennans (S. prostrata), conventionally named "red" and "green" forms (by the predominant color of shoots, since the sprout stage until the death of the plant) growing on the coast of the Kuialnyk Estuary (Odesa Region) were studied. The need for a detailed comparative morphological study of the representatives of both microcenopopulations was due to some differences between them revealed earlier in the biochemical composition and ontogeny features. To study the morphological characteristics of inflorescences, flowers, pollen grains, fruits and seeds of S. perennans, light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used. It has been demonstrated that all studied samples of this species are characterized by fleshy, cylindrical, spicate inflorescences on a short stalk. Flowers are without bracts, small, bisexual, immersed in the stem tissue, with a simple, triangular perianth obtuse at the edge, with 1–2 stamens and 2 stigmas. The shape of the flower elements and characteristics of the inflorescence are similar in plants of "green" and "red" microcenopopulations. Pollen grains of S. perennans are pantoporate, spheroidal in shape; medium-sized. Pores are circular, with distinct or indistinct borders. The exine sculpture is spinulose, occasionally with small perforations between the spinules, with the sculpture of pore membranes spinulose. The pollen grains of representatives of both microcenopopulations of S. perennans are similar (almost indistinguishable). Representatives of both microcenopopulations have ovoid single-seeded fruits with a thin homocellular pericarp, covered with the remains of an almost transparent perianth and very small ovoid seeds covered with short, simple hairs. In all samples of "red" and "green" plants, exotesta has similar surface structure, with a similar ornamentation (anticlinal walls meandering, with precise contours, periclinal walls slightly convex, finely tuberculate). The absence of qualitative carpological features, with the exception of the coloration of the remains of the perianth, between the plants of the studied microcenopopulations, is demonstrated. Further ecological-geographical studies, as well as the use of molecular methods, are necessary for resolving the question of a possible taxonomic status of representatives of the "green" and "red" microcenopopulations.

Keywords: Chenopodiaceae, taxonomic status, microcenopopulations, morphological features, generative organs

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 10M

  1. Artyushenko Z.T. Atlas po opisatelnoy morfologii vyisshih rasteniy. Semya. Leningrad: Nauka, 1990, 205 pp.
  2. Artyushenko Z.T., Fedorov Al.A. Atlas po opisatelnoy morfologii vyisshih rasteniy. Plod. Leningrad: Nauka, 1986, 390 pp.
  3. Ball P.W. Arthrocnemum Moq., Salicornia. In: Flora Europaea. Eds T.G. Tutin, V.H. Heywood, N.A. Burges, D.M. Moore, D.H. Valentine, S.M. Walters, D.A. Webb. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1964, vol. 1, pp. 101–102.
  4. Ball P.W., Akeroyd J.R. Salicornia. In: Flora Europaea. 2 ed. Eds T.G. Tutin, N.A. Burges, J.R. Edmondson, V.H. Heywood, A.O. Chater, J.R. Akeroyd, D.M. Moore, R.R. Mill, D.H. Valentine, M.E. Newton, S.M. Walters, D.A. Webb. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993, vol. 1, pp. 121–123.
  5. Barthlott W. Epidermal and seed surface characters of plants. Systematic applicability and some evolutionary aspect. Nord. J. Bot., 1981, 1: 345–355.
  6. Bezusko L.G., Tsymbalyuk Z.M. Palynotheka of the M.H. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. In: Herbaria of Ukraine. Index Herbariorum Ucrainicum. Ed. N.M. Shiyan. Kyiv: Alterpress, 2011, pp. 138–141.
  7. Dably D.H. Some variation in Salicornia and its significance. In: Species Studies in the British Flora. Ed. J.E. Lousley. Buncle, Arbroath: Bot. Soc. British Isles, 1955, pp. 133–134.
  8. Erdtman G. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1952, 539 pp.
  9. Fedorov Al.A., Artyushenko Z.T. Atlas po opisatelnoy morfologii vyisshih rasteniy. Tsvetok. Moscow; Leningrad: Nauka, 1975, 350 pp.
  10. Freitag H. Typification of Salicornia perennans Willd. (Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) and the significance of names by Pallas. Willdenowia, 2011, 41(2): 231–237.
  11. Iljin M.M. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora URSR. Ed. M.I. Kotov. Kyiv: Vyd-vo AN URSR, 1952, vol. 4, pp. 260–400.
  12. Ingrouille M.J., Pearson J. The pattern of morphological variation in the Salicornia europaea L. aggregate (Chenopodiaceae). Watsonia, 1987, 16: 269–281.
  13. Kadereit G., Ball P., Beer S., Mucina L., Sokoloff D., Teege P., Yaprak A.E., Freitag H. A taxonomic nightmare comes true: phylogeny and biogeography of grassworts (Salicornia L., Chenopodiaceae). Taxon, 2007, 56(4): 1143–1170.
  14. Kadereit G., Mucina L., Freitag H. Phylogeny of Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae): diversification, biogeography and evolutionary trends in leaf and flower morphology. Taxon, 2006, 55(3): 617–642.
  15. Kadereit G., Piirainen M., Lambinon J., Vanderpoorten A. Cryptic taxa should have names: Reflections in the glasswort genus Salicornia (Amaranthaceae). Taxon, 2012, 61(6): 1227–1239.
  16. Kumar D., Rangaswamy N.S., Dinesh K. SEM studies on seed surface of wild and cultivated species of Vigna Savi. Proc. Ind. Acad. Pl. Sc., 1984, 93: 35–42.
  17. Kupriyanova L.A., Aleshina L.A. Pyltsa i spory rasteniy flory evropeyskoy chasti SSSR. Leningrad: Nauka, 1972, vol. 1, 170 pp.
  18. Kuzmina I.S., Shihaleeva G.N. In: Biotehnologiya: zvershennya ta nadiyi: tezy IV Vseukr. nauk.-prakt. konf. studentiv, aspirantiv ta molodih vchenih. Kyiv: Visnyk NUBiP Ukrainy, 2015, pp. 114–116.
  19. López-González G. Sobre las especies madrilènes de Salicornia L. (incl. Sarcocornia A.J. Scott). Ann. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 1997, 55(2): 468–471.
  20. Mosyakin S.L., Fedoronchuk M.M. Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. Kiev, 1999, xxiii + 345 pp.
  21. Piirainen M. Flora Nordica notes. 1. Salicornia (Chenopodiaceae) in northern Europe: Typification and taxonomic notes. Ann. Bot. Fenn., 1991, 28: 81–85.
  22. Piirainen M., Liebisch O., Kadereit G. Phylogeny, biogeography, systematics and taxonomy of Salicornioideae (Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae) – a cosmopolitan, highly specialized hygrohalophyte lineage dating back to the Oligocene. Taxon, 2017, 66(1): 109–132.
  23. Punt W., Hoen P.P., Blackmore S., Nilsson S., Le Thomas A. Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 2007, 143: 1–81.
  24. Rezk M.R. Seed structure as phylogenetic criterion. A case of Plantago seed. Egypt. J. Bot., 1980, 23: 51–65.
  25. Shihaleeva G.N., Chursina O.D., Kiryushkina A.N. In: Aktualni problemy botaniki ta ekologiyi: materialy Mizhnarodnoyi konferentsiyi molodyh uchenyh, prisvyachenoyi 120-rychchyu vid dnya narodzhennya D.K. Zerova. Poltava, 2015, pp. 92–93.
  26. Slenzka A., Mucina L., Kadereit G. Salicornia L. (Amaranthaceae) in South Africa and Namibia: rapid spread and ecological diversification of cryptic species. Bot. J. Linn. Soc., 2013, 172: 175–186.
  27. Tzvelev N.N. Ukr. Bot. J., 1993, 50(1): 78–85.
  28. Teege P.K., Kadereit J.W., Kadereit G. Tetraploid European Salicornia species are best interpreted as ecotypes of multiple origin. Flora, 2011, 206: 910–920.
  29. Tölken H.R. The species of Arthrocnemum and Salicornia (Chenopodiaceae) in southern Africa. Bothalia, 1967, 9: 255–307.
  30. Tsymbalyuk Z.M. Pollen morphology of representatives of the family Chenopodiaceae Vent. (for taxonomy and spore-pollen analysis): Cand. Sci. Diss. Kyiv, 2005, 320 pp.
  31. Tsymbalyuk Z.M., Mosyakin S.L., Bezusko L.H. Nauk. Zap. NaUKMA. Ser. Biolohiya ta ekolohiya, 2005: 9–25.
  32. Turki Z., El-Shayeb F., Shehata F. Taxonomic studies in the Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae) in Egypt. 1. Subtribe Kochiinae (Bassia, Kochia and Chenolea). Flora Mediterranea, 2006, 16: 275–294.