Following recent molecular phylogenetic findings and subsequent proposals on re-circumscription of genera earlier subsumed under Anemone sensu lato (Ranunculaceae), the genus Knowltonia is accepted here in an expanded circumscription, including both dry-fruited and fleshy-fruited African species, plus some American taxa (including those earlier treated in genera Oreithales and Barneoudia), and the Tasmanian species K. crassifolia. Nomenclature of the well-known southern African dry-fruited species earlier accepted mainly under the names Anemone capensis and A. tenuifolia is discussed. The correct name of that species in Knowltonia is K. tenuifolia (L.f.) Mosyakin, comb. nov. (= Atragene tenuifolia L.f., Anemone tenuifolia (L.f.) DC.; incl. Atragene capensis L., Anemone capensis (L.) Lam., Knowltonia pulsatilloides Christenh. & Byng, etc.). It is also demonstrated that the name Anemone capensis proposed by Lamarck should be treated as a nomenclatural combination with the basionym Atragene capensis (Art. 41.4 of the ICN), not as a name of a new taxon. Taxonomic and nomenclatural implications of that conclusion are discussed. In particular, if treated in Anemone sensu lato, the correct name of this species should be Anemone capensis (L.) Lam., not A. tenuifolia (L.f.) DC. If two leaf morphs are accepted as two different species of Knowltonia, the names K. tenuifolia (with more finely dissected, triternate leaves) and K. pulsatilloides (with biternate leaves and cuneate segments) can be used; however, the species rank for these morphs should not be recommended at our present state of knowledge.
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