Historical records on distribution of Luzula spicata in the Ukrainian Carpathians from past publications and herbarium specimens were analyzed. This arctic-alpine species formerly occurred at the uppermost elevations in three mountain massifs: the Chornohora, Marmarosh and Chyvchyny Mts. It was confined to acidic sandstone and conglomerate rocks on mountain summits and ridges with the lowest thermal conditions. Thorough recent surveys of all the eight previously documented localities allowed to reconfirm the occurrence of L. spicata in one station only, namely near the summit of Mt. Pip Ivan (1990 m a.s.l.) in the Chornohora Mts where its small population has survived. Apparently, the species has become extirpated elsewhere in the Ukrainian Carpathians. A map of current and extinct localities is provided, as well as an image of the recent herbarium specimen. Luzula spicata is one of the most cryophilic species of the Carpathian flora and its Ukrainian localities refer to the lower limit of the species altitudinal range. Therefore, its decline and extinction can be attributed to climate change that has also been reported from other mountain systems of Europe. Analysis of past data showed that most probably the species has already been gradually dying off since the end of the so-called "Little Ice Age" (i.e. 100–150 years ago) that was followed by progressive warming. Luzula spicata is a poorly competitive species confined to rocky habitats with scarce vegetation cover. It is vulnerable both to the direct impact of warming and to replacement by taller graminoids or dwarf shrubs encroaching on the alpine habitats in the course of the climate-induced succession. Because L. spicata is on the brink of extinction, it should be included in the next edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine as Critically Endangered (CR).
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