ISSN 2415-8860 (Online), ISSN 0372-4123 (Print)
logoUkrainian Botanical Journal
  • 4 of 8
Up
Ukr. Bot. J. 2019, 76(2): 121–131
https://doi.org/10.15407/ukrbotj76.02.121
Fungi and Fungi-like Organisms

Investigation of cultural features and fungicide resistance of the strains of Cladobotryum mycophilum (Hypocreales, Ascomycota), a causal agent of cobweb disease on button mushroom crops, newly recorded in Ukraine

Medvediev D.G.1, Kerner A.O.2, Bondaruk S.V.2, Al-Maali G.A.1
Abstract

For the first time, Cladobotryum mycophilum, a causal agent of cobweb disease of Agaricus bisporus, was discovered on mushroom farms in Ukraine. Growth characteristics and morphology features of five strains of C. mycophilum were studied on standard nutrient media of different composition. Particular attention was paid to determining the sensitivity of these strains to the following fungicides: benzimidazole fungicides (carbendazim and benomyl), fluazinam, metrafenone and prochloraz. In the study, we used concentrations recommended by manufacturers for application on mushroom farms. It was found that all strains were resistant to carbendazim. Only one strain had a high sensitivity to benamyl, two strains had a very low sensitivity, and two strains were resistant. Resistance to benzimidazole fungicides and absence of camphor odor are characteristic of C. mycophilum Type II. Prochloraz, which is the most common alternative to benzimidazole fungicides, inhibited the growth of two strains only. Investigation of the influence of these fungicides on micromorphology of C. mycophilum demonstrated that benzimidazole fungicides and prochlorazes do not inhibit sporulation. Metrofenone, a new highly selective fungicide, inhibited the growth of all strains. Only one strain had a low sensitivity to this fungicide. Metraphenone significantly changed the mycelium micromorphology of C. mycophilum: the average thickness of hyphae was reduced by half, with respect to control in a medium without fungicides; the cytoplasm contained numerous inclusions, while conidia and conidiophores were absent. Fluazinam inhibited the growth of all these strains. Hypertrophy of vegetative cells, enlarged deformed conidiophores and conidiogenous cells were observed on the medium with fluazinam. Numerous cells had large vacuoles that occupy up to 70% of the cells. Fluazinam, like metrafenone, completely blocked sporulation of C. mycophilum.

Keywords: Agaricus bisporus, benzimidazole fungicides, cobweb disease, fluazinam, metrafenone, prochloraz

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 2.64M

References
  1. Adie B., Grogan H., Archer S., Mills P. 2006. Temporal and spatial dispersal of Cladobotryum conidia in the controlled environment of a mushroom growing room. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(11): 7212–7217. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01369-06
  2. Back C.-G., Kim Y.-H., Jo W.-S., Chung H., Jung H.-Y. 2010. Cobweb disease on Agaricus bisporus caused by Cladobotryum mycophilum in Korea. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 76(3): 232–235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10327-010-0236-3
  3. Back C.-G., Lee C.-Y., Seo G.-C., Jung H.-Y. 2012. Characterization of species of Cladobotryum which cause cobweb disease in edible mushrooms grown in Korea. Mycobiology, 40(3): 189–194. https://doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2012.40.3.189
  4. Bhatt N., Singh R.P. 1992. Cobweb disease of Agaricus bisporus: incidence, losses and effective management. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 22(2): 178–181.
  5. Bisko N.A., Babitskaya V.G., Buchalo A.S., Krupoderova T.A., Lomberg M.L., Mikchaylova O.B., Puchkova T.A., Solomko E.F., Shcherba V.V. 2012. Biologicheskie osobennosti lekarstvennykh makromitsetov v kulture: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov. Vol. 2. Ed. S.P. Wasser. Kiev, 459 pp.
  6. Carrasco J., Navarro M.J., Santos M., Gea F.J. 2017. Effect of five fungicides with different modes of action on cobweb disease (Cladobotryum mycophilum) and mushroom yield. Annals of Applied Biology, 171(1): 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12352
  7. Carrasco J., Navarro M.J., Gea F.J. 2017. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: a review. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 15: e10R01. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2017152-10143
  8. Chakwiya A., Van der Linde E.J., Korsten L. 2015. In vitro sensitivity testing of Cladobotryum mycophilum to carbendazim and prochloraz manganese. South African Journal of Science, 111(11–12): 1–7. https://doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2015/20140408
  9. Dai Y., Gan L., Ruan H., Shi N., Du Y., Liao L., Wei Z., Teng Z., Chen F., Yang X. 2018. Sensitivity of Cochliobolus heterostrophus to three demethylation inhibitor fungicides, propiconazole, diniconazole and prochloraz, and their efficacy against southern corn leaf blight in Fujian province, China. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 152(2): 447–459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-018-1490-z
  10. de Hoog G.S. 1978. Notes on some fungicolous hyphomycetes and their relatives. Persoonia-Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 10(1): 33–81.
  11. Fletcher J.T., White P F., Gaze R.H. 1986. Mushrooms pest and disease control. Ponteland: Intercept, 156 pp.
  12. Fletcher J.T., Gaze R.H. 2007. Mushroom Pest and Disease Control: A Colour Handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 192 pp.
  13. Gea F.J., Navarro M.J., Suz L.M. 2011. First report of Cladobotryum mycophilum causing cobweb on cultivated king oyster mushroom in Spain. Plant Disease, 95(8): 1030–1030. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0255
  14. Grogan H.M. 2000. Fungicide resistance among Cladobotryum spp. – causal agents of cobweb disease of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Mycological Research, 104(3): 357–364. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0953756299001197
  15. Grogan H. M. 2006. Fungicide control of mushroom cobweb disease caused by Cladobotryum strains with different benzimidazole resistance profiles. Pest Management Science (formerly Pesticide Science), 62(2): 153–161. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1133
  16. Jeschke P., Witschel M., Krämer W., Schirmer U. 2019. Modern crop protection compounds. Wiley-VCH, 1776 pp. https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527699261
  17. Kim M.K., Seuk S.W., Lee Y.H., Kim H.R., Cho K.M. 2014. Fungicide sensitivity and characterization of cobweb disease on a Pleurotus eryngii mushroom crop caused by Cladobotryum mycophilum. The Plant Pathology Journal, 30(1): 82. https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2013.0098
  18. Matheron M.E., Porchas M. 2004. Activity of boscalid, fenhexamid, fluazinam, fludioxonil, and vinclozolin on growth of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum and development of lettuce drop. Plant Disease, 88(6): 665–668. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.6.665
  19. McKay G.J., Egan D., Morris E., Scott C., Brown A.E. 1999. Genetic and morphological characterization of Cladobotryum species causing cobweb disease of mushrooms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(2): 606–610.
  20. Opalski K.S., Tresch S., Karl-Heinz Kogel K.-H., Grossmann K., Kohle H., Huckelhoven R. 2006. Metrafenone: studies on the mode of action of a novel cereal powdery mildew fungicide. Pest Management Science (formerly Pesticide Science), 62(5): 393–401. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1176
  21. Ozaktan H., Bora T. 2000. Biological control of some important mushroom diseases in Turkey by fluorescent pseudomonads. In: Science and cultivation of edible fungi, vol. 2. Ed. L.J.L.D. Van Griensven. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, pp. 689–694.
  22. Prylutskyi O.V., Akulov O.Yu., Leontyev D.V., Ordinets A.V., Yatsiuk I.I., Usichenko A. S., Savchenko A.O. 2017. Fungi and fungus-like organisms of Homilsha Forests National Park, Ukraine. Mycotaxon, 132(3): 705. https://doi.org/10.5248/132.705
  23. Pyck N., Sedeyn P., Demeulemeester M., Grogan H. 2016. Evaluation of metrafenone against Verticillium and Cladobotryum spp. – causal agents of dry bubble and cobweb disease. In: Science and cultivation of edible and medicinal fungi. Amsterdam: Wageningen University and Research Centre, pp. 82–85.
  24. Rogerson C.T., Samuels G.J. 1994. Agaricicolous species of Hypomyces. Mycologia, 86(6): 839–866. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.1994.12026489
  25. Seth P.K., Dar G.M. 1989. Studies on Cladobotryum dendroides (Bull: Merat) W.Gams & Hoozem, causing cobweb disease of Agaricus bisporus and its control. Mushroom Science, 12: 711–723.
  26. Tamm H., Põldmaa K. 2013. Diversity, host associations, and phylogeography of temperate aurofusarin-producing Hypomyces/Cladobotryum including causal agents of cobweb disease of cultivated mushrooms. Fungal Biology, 117(5): 348–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2013.03.005
  27. Vedder P.J.C. Modern Mushroom Growing. Culemborg: Educaboek, 1978, 420 pp.