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Ukr. Bot. J. 2017, 74(2): 131–147
Fungi and Fungi-like Organisms

Main trends of evolution of fruit bodies in agaricomycetes, with special reference to coprinoidization

Prydiuk M.P.

Modern views on existing trends in evolution of agaricomycetes fruit bodies are summarized. The well-known evolutionary trends of basidial mushrooms, gasteromycetization and cyphellization, are outlined. Special attention is paid to coprinoidization, a recently recognized trend of evolution of agaricoid mushrooms. The coprinoidization, an ability of fruit bodies for accelerated ontogeny, which independently evolved in several evolutionary lines of fungi of the order Agaricales (families Agaricaceae, Bolbitiaceae and Psathyrellaceae), is a way of adaptation of basidial macromycetes to extreme conditions. It enables them to colonize substrates with considerably fluctuating water content. The most noticeable common feature of coprinoid fruit bodies is their fast autolysis or collapse after sporogenesis. The main morphological changes which make possible such a mode of adaptation as well as its advantages and preferences are considered. It is shown that this way of evolutionary adaptation is the most advantageous for fimicolous macromycetes but is also beneficial for mushrooms growing on other types of substrata. The present data about origin of the first coprinoid taxa of fungi and time of their origin are considered. The presumable connection with expansion of dry open grasslands followed by evolutionary radiation and diversification of large grazing mammals during the Miocene is indicated.

Keywords: coprinoidization, fruit bodies morphology, autolysis, evolution

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