Historical aspects of taxonomy of Larix polonica, its distribution and diagnostic characters distinguishing it from L. decidua s. str. and L. sibirica are considered. Morphological characters of cones and ecological and coenotic features of eight larch populations in the Ukrainian Carpathians were studied, and on the basis of a comparative analysis of these signs, the point of view of some taxonomists is supported concerning the proper taxonomic rank of varieties (var.). None of the populations known in Ukraine can be identified as L. decidua var. polonica; instead of that, Ukrainian plants mainly correspond to the characters of L. decidua var. carpatica, while the plantation near the Kedryn Forestry belongs to L. sibirica. At the same time, in artificial plantations (Manyava and Nimchych) we registered specimens that, based on the structure of their cones, can be identified as L. decidua var. polonica, and in plantations of Chudei as L. sibirica. It was established that only two populations, Kedryn and Staryi Plai, confined to the upper limit of the forest (1100–1300 m above sea level) are natural, and others (around 700 m above sea level) are of artificial origin, although in most cases larch recovers well. From an ecological and coenotic point of view, groups with the participation of Larix belong to different syntaxa: Piceion excelsae (ass. Plagiothecio-Piceetum), Abieti-Piceion (ass. Abieti-Piceetum montanum) and Fagion sylvaticae (ass. Dentario glandolosae-Fagetum). According to the EUNIS classification, this biotope should be identified as G:3252 — [Larix decidua] and [Pinus cembra] formations of the dry, inner Carpathian Proprad basin. Taking into account the local distribution and the small size of the two natural populations, Larix decidua s. l. should be included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine.
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