This article is a review of the literature in order to determine the effect of altered gravity on the ` activity of plant cells. On the basis of a deep and comprehensive study of the influence of abiotic factors on living organisms and the reactions of their adaptation in conditions of space flight, it is possible to predict the reliability of life support systems. Cell biology research by altered gravity conditions and clarify of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of plants gravisensitive are the leading areas of modern space biology. They are aimed at solving the fundamental problems of cell biology and the knowledge of basic metabolic processes in the cell, a theory of growth, development and reproduction of plant organisms in microgravity. Higher plants and other photosynthetic organisms are key components of bioregenerative systems to ensure the required quantity and quality of food, maintain the necessary atmosphere, recycle waste and provide drinking water. Study in the field of space biology contribute to a clarification of the fundamental problems of space biology and create the controlled human life-support systems in manned space flight and the development of biotechnology. To study the effect of microgravity on the activity of cell proliferation, it is necessary to study both the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and the development of plants under these conditions. The use of clinorotation makes it possible to reveal the effect of simulated gravity on events in the cell during the cell cycle – exit from the state of rest and advance along the G1 and S-phases of the cycle. The d-cyclins (belonging to the class of D-cyclins), which are very important for the passage of the presynthetic phase of the cell, are of greatest interest for the study and are responsible for the cell exit from the resting state and the transition to the phase of DNA synthesis. In addition, in experiments with different types of higher plants, a variety of their growth response to the effect of altered gravity under conditions of space experiments or clinorotation is observed: either growth stimulation or its inhibition is revealed, or the absence of noticeable changes in the intensity of this process.
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