Geographical distribution, ecological and coenotic conditions of habitats and modern state of populations of Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae), a rare species included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine, were studied. This species in Ukraine occurs in the northern lowland part, mainly in Polissya, Carpathians and Crimean Mountains. In northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone G. repens has been found only in four localities. In all, in Ukraine G. repens is known from 89 localities, including 39 – from Polissya, 4 – from Forest-Steppe zone, 25 – from the Carpathian Mountains, 21 localities from Crimea. In Ukraine G. repens grows mainly in coniferous forests: in spruce and fir forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians, in spruce and Scotch pine forests in Ukrainian Polissya, in Crimean pine (Pinus pallasiana) forests in the Crimean mountains and in green moss synusias of coniferous-deciduous forests. The structure of G. repens populations depends on anthropogenic influence on habitats. Homeostatic populations with complete ontogenetic states prevail in anthropogenically undisturbed habitats. The anthropogenic factors (cutting, drainage, fire) cause destruction of age structure and entire elimination of populations. Occasionally G. repens forms large homeostatic populations in silvicultural spruce and Scotch pine forests. Proposals to impove protection of the G. repens populations in Ukraine are given.
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