Plasmolemma permeability is an integral indicator of the functional state of plant cells under stress. Aquaporins (AQPs), specialized transmembrane proteins that form water channels and play an important role in the adaptation of plants to adverse conditions and, in particular, to lack or excess of water, are involved in the formation of the response to drought. The main function of AQPs is to facilitate the movement of water across cell membranes and maintain aqueous cell homeostasis. Under stressful conditions, there is both an increase and decrease in the expression of individual aquaporin genes. Analysis of the data revealed differences in the expression of AQPs genes in stable and sensitive plant genotypes. It turned out that aquaporins in different stress-resistant varieties of the same species also respond differently to drought. The review provides brief information on the history of the discovery of aquaporins, the structure and function of these proteins, summarizes the latest information on the role of aquaporins in the regulation of metabolism and the response of plants to stressors, with particular emphasis on aquaporins in drought protection. The discovery and study of AQPs expands the possibilities of using genetic engineering methods for the selection of new plant species, in particular, more resistant to drought and salinization of the soil, as well as to increase their productivity. The use of aquaporins in biotechnology to improve drought resistance of various species has many prospects.
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