Population research allows to establish biological diversity and provides an opportunity to determine the status of genetic resources of the fungi and distribution of the gene pool across the species range. The analysis of biochemical markers (proteins) allows to establish the loci (allelic) variability within the species at the population level, as well as to define population boundaries and to provide screening of biotechnologically valuable properties. Many factors affect the structure of fungal populations, such as propagation, mutation, genetic drift, population size, system of vegetative and sexual compatibility. Enzyme systems of basidiomycetes at the population level in Ukraine are poorly studied. The aim of the research was to investigate the population status of the fungus Schizophyllum commune within Feofania forest parcel using polymorphic intracellular enzyme systems. The allelic variability of Schizophyllum commune in the territory of Feofaniya forest parcel were established. Eleven allelic variants for Cat, Got, Amy2 and Eg loci, two for endo -1,3(4)-β-glucanase (Eg) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (Got) enzymes, three for α-amylase (Amy2) and four for catalase (Cat) were identified. The deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equation for the Eg and Cat loci is likely to be due to the limited population size and a high percentage of inbreeding within it. A deficiency of heterozygotes of endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase and catalase enzymes and a balance of homo- and heterozygotes for Amy2 and Got loci were observed. The data on the genetic status of the population of S. commune in Feofaniya indicate population decline which is an evidence of its certain isolation.
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