Current and historical views on taxonomy and nomenclature of Pontic-Mediterranean coastal and some Australasian taxa of Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) are analyzed. Taxonomic identity and nomenclature of several names applied and misapplied to members of the species group known in recent publications mainly as Salsola pontica (Pall.) Degen sensu lato are discussed. It is demonstrated that Kali dodecanesicum C. Brullo & al. is a later synonym of Salsola squarrosa Steven ex Moq., which appears to be the earliest species-rank name available for the whole Pontic-Mediterranean group of taxa. This group is represented by Western Mediterranean (S. controversa Tod. ex Lojac.), Eastern Mediterranean (S. squarrosa s. str.), and mainly Pontic (S. pontica s. str.) geographical races. Considering the blurred morphological and geographical limits between these taxa, they are better treated as three subspecies of S. squarrosa: subsp. controversa (Tod. ex Lojac.) Mosyakin, comb. nov., subsp. squarrosa, and subsp. pontica (Pall.) Mosyakin, comb. nov., respectively. It is demonstrated that S. macrophylla R. Br. (described from Australia) is not conspecific with any of Pontic-Mediterranean coastal taxa but is probably related to the currently recognized species S. australis R. Br. The identity of S. brachypteris Moq. (described from Java, Indonesia) remains uncertain but, judging from available evidence, it is most probably either related to or conspecific with S. macrophylla, or some other insufficiently known Australasian species. The problem of conflicting typifications and application of the name S. caroliniana Walter is briefly discussed; it is concluded that the name should be proposed for rejection. The need for further morphological, molecular phylogenetic, and phylogeographic studies of coastal Eurasian and Australasian species of Salsola is emphasized.
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