The paper presents a short history of syntaxonomical investigation of the pioneer vegetation in Ukraine. Peculiarities of its composition and factors of territorial differentiation as well as actual tasks of further research are considered. It is defined that in Ukraine the pioneer vegetation covers communities of 76 associations belonging to 13 alliances, 10 orders and 9 classes. This vegetation is represented by communities of salted maritime and land ecotopes (Thero-Salicornietea and Crypsidetea aculeatae classes), sea beaches and cliffs (Crithmo-Staticetea), seaside-dune ecosystems (Ammophiletea and Cakiletea maritimae), coastal parts of continental reservoirs and watercourses (Isöeto-Nano-Juncetea and Bidentetea tripartitae), sands and sandy steppes (Koelerio-Corynephoretea and Festucetea vaginatae). Middle European level of coenotic wealth is typical for all classes, except Koelerio-Corynephoretea demonstrating lower level. The following factors of territorial and ecological differentiation causing coenotic richness have been established: habitat relief, duration of onset inundation, salt degree of soils and their composition (for the Thero-Salicornietea and Crypsidetea aculeatae classes); humidification degree and soil salinization (for Crithmo-Staticetea); intensity of abrasive-accumulation sea activity, substrate type and density (for Ammophiletea); intensity of abrasive-accumulation sea activity, type and density of soil cover, content of nitrogen compounds (for Cakiletea maritimae), relief character of pioneer ecotopes, soil composition and degree of aeration, level of groundwater (for Isöeto-Nano-Juncetea); soil composition and duration of surface inundation (for Bidentetea tripartitae), habitat relief and composition peculiarities, in particular reaction of soil solution (for Koelerio-Corynephoretea); relief character, soil type, humusness level, its density, as well as degree of eolic process development (for Festucetea vaginatae).
It is noted that up to now only syntaxonomical inventory of pioneer vegetation in Ukraine has been more fully implemented. It is also emphasized that pioneer vegetation in Ukraine is quite transformed and requires protection measures including establishment of new nature conservation areas and environmental restoration. Conditions and some ways of implementation of the suggested and other tasks in conservation of pioneer vegetation are indicated.
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